BACKGROUND: The incidence of degenerative diseases is increasing. The underlying mechanism for such disease includes rising oxidative stress without correspondingly adequate antioxidants. Intermittent fasting (IF) may stimulate mild oxidative stress with a corresponding increase in antioxidants. Dawood fasting (DF) as an alternative diet similar to IF is normally performed for <24 h (±14 h) with intermittent intervals of 1st-day fasting, 2nd-day ad libitum (AL) diet, 3rd-day fasting, and so on. AIM: The aim of this study to examine the effect of DF on the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (Cat) antioxidant enzymes in BALB/c strain mice. METHODS: A total of 15 BALB/c strain mice were randomly divided into three groups. The AL control (ALC) group was given a standard diet (AIN93) and AL drink every day. The high-fat diet control group was treated with a high-fat diet (24%) and daily AL drink. The DF group fasted on the 1st day (no food or drink) from 17:00 to 07:00, continued every other day, and given a standard feed (AIN93) and AL drink for 8 weeks. Examination of SOD levels in the liver as well as GPx and Cat levels in plasma was carried out using a spectrophotometer. The analysis was conducted using the one-way analysis of variance test followed by Tukey’s test (95% confidence level). RESULTS: The levels of SOD in ALC, DF, and HF groups were 52.86 ± 5.73%, 68.57 ± 3.7%, and 38.57 ± 4.3%, respectively (p = 0.00). The GPx levels were 43.06 ± 2.75 U/L, 55.54 ± 2.71 U/L, and 32.26 ± 2.14 U/L, respectively (p = 0.00), and the corresponding Cat levels were 5.82 ± 0.63 U/ml, 6.55 ± 0.64 U/ml, and 3.44 ± 0.64 U/ml (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: The levels of SOD, GPx, and Cat antioxidant enzymes during DF were higher compared to an AL diet and a high-fat diet.
Rationale and Objectives Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique that allows for reliable assessment of microscopic changes in brain cytoarchitecture, neuronal injuries, and neurochemical changes resultant from traumatic insults. We aimed to evaluate the acute alteration of neurometabolites in complicated and uncomplicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients in comparison to control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Material and Methods Forty-eight subjects (23 complicated mTBI [cmTBI] patients, 12 uncomplicated mTBI [umTBI] patients, and 13 controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan with additional single voxel spectroscopy sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging scans for patients were done at an average of 10 hours (standard deviation 4.26) post injury. The single voxel spectroscopy adjacent to side of injury and noninjury regions were analysed to obtain absolute concentrations and ratio relative to creatine of the neurometabolites. One-way analysis of variance was performed to compare neurometabolite concentrations of the three groups, and a correlation study was done between the neurometabolite concentration and Glasgow Coma Scale. Results Significant difference was found in ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr + PCr) (χ2(2) = 0.22, P < .05) between the groups. The sum of NAA and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) also shows significant differences in both the absolute concentration (NAA + NAAG) and ratio to creatine (NAA + NAAG/Cr + PCr) between groups (χ2(2) = 4.03, P < .05and (χ2(2) = 0.79, P < .05)). NAA values were lower in cmTBI and umTBI compared to control group. A moderate weak positive correlation were found between Glasgow Coma Scale with NAA/Cr + PCr (ρ = 0.36, P < .05 and NAA + NAAG/Cr + PCr (ρ = 0.45, P < .05)), whereas a moderate correlation was seen with NAA + NAAG (ρ = 0.38, P < .05). Conclusion Neurometabolite alterations were already apparent at onset of both complicated and uncomplicated traumatic brain injury. The ratio of NAA and NAAG has potential to serve as a biomarker reflecting injury severity in a quantifiable manner as it discriminates between the complicated and uncomplicated cases of mTBI.
Rationale and Objectives Gliomatous tumors are known to affect neural fiber integrity, either by displacement or destruction. The aim of this study is to investigate the integrity and distribution of the white matter tracts within and around the glioma regions using probabilistic fiber tracking. Material and Methods Forty-two glioma patients were subjected to MRI using a standard tumor protocol with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The tumor and peritumor regions were delineated using snake model with reference to structural and diffusion MRI. A preprocessing pipeline of the structural MRI image, DTI data, and tumor regions was implemented. Tractography was performed to delineate the white matter (WM) tracts in the selected tumor regions via probabilistic fiber tracking. DTI indices were investigated through comparative mapping of WM tracts and tumor regions in low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG). Results Significant differences were seen in the planar tensor (Cp) in peritumor regions; mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and pure isotropic diffusion in solid-enhancing tumor regions; and fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, pure anisotropic diffusion (q), total magnitude of diffusion tensor (L), relative anisotropy, Cp and spherical tensor (Cs) in solid nonenhancing tumor regions for affected WM tracts. In most cases of HGG, the WM tracts were not completely destroyed, but found intact inside the tumor. Discussion Probabilistic fiber tracking revealed the existence and distribution of WM tracts inside tumor core for both LGG and HGG groups. There were more DTI indices in the solid nonenhancing tumor region, which showed significant differences between LGG and HGG.
Objectives This study maps the lipid distributions based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in-and opposed-phase (IOP) sequence and correlates the findings generated from lipid map to histological grading of glioma. Methods Forty histologically proven glioma patients underwent a standard MRI tumour protocol with the addition of IOP sequence. The regions of tumour (solid enhancing, solid non-enhancing, and cystic regions) were delineated using snake model (ITK-SNAP) with reference to structural and diffusion MRI images. The lipid distribution map was constructed based on signal loss ratio (SLR) obtained from the IOP imaging. The mean SLR values of the regions were computed and compared across the different glioma grades. Results The solid enhancing region of glioma had the highest SLR for both Grade II and III. The mean SLR of solid non-enhancing region of tumour demonstrated statistically significant difference between the WHO grades (grades II, III & IV) (mean SLRII = 0.04, mean SLRIII = 0.06, mean SLRIV = 0.08, & p < .01). A strong positive correlation was seen between WHO grades with mean SLR on lipid map of solid non-enhancing (ρ=0.68, p < .01). Conclusion Lipid quantification via lipid map provides useful information on lipid landscape in tumour heterogeneity characterisation of glioma. This technique adds to the surgical diagnostic yield by identifying biopsy targets. It can also be used as an adjunct grading tool for glioma as well as to provide information about lipidomics landscape in glioma development.
Purpose of review This article discusses the current approach in diagnosing skew deviation, as well as recent findings in the lesion localization. Recent findings Skew deviation can be defined as vertical misalignment of the eyes that does not map to any of cyclovertical muscles, in association with neurologic symptoms and signs and with posterior fossa lesion. It can be differentiated from trochlear nerve palsy by the direction of ocular torsion and the change in the degree of vertical deviation with upright and supine head position. It is commonly caused by ischemia of the posterior paramedian pons, medial thalamus, or cerebellum. Other less common mechanism being demyelinating lesion, mass effect, infection, hemorrhage, or intracranial hypertension. When the vestibular nuclei are involved, skew deviation may occur with acute vestibular syndrome. Ground-in or Fresnel prism may alleviate diplopia in relatively small vertical deviation; however, patient with larger deviation or with the presence of ocular torsion may benefit from surgery of the cyclovertical muscles. Summary Skew deviation can be appropriately diagnosed from the nature of the ocular torsion and the vertical deviation, along with the presence of lesion involving posterior paramedian pons and/or medial thalamus.
Objective To compare the extent of persistent neuropsychological impairment in patients with complicated mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and those with uncomplicated mTBI. Methods Sixty-one patients with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13–15) were recruited prospectively, categorized according to baseline computed tomography findings, and subjected to neuropsychological assessment at initial admission (n = 61) as well as at a 6-month follow-up (n = 30). The paired t test, Cohen's d effect size calculation, and repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to establish the differences between the 2 groups in terms of neuropsychological performance. Results A trend toward poorer neuropsychological performance among the patients with complicated mTBI was observed during admission; however, performance in this group improved over time. In contrast, the uncomplicated mTBI group showed slower recovery, especially in tasks of memory, visuospatial processing, and executive functions, at follow-up. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite the broad umbrella designation of mTBI, the current classification schemes of injury severity for mild neurotrauma should be revisited. They also raise questions about the clinical relevance of both traumatic focal lesions and the absence of visible traumatic lesions on brain imaging studies in patients with milder forms of head trauma.
Introduction Macular degeneration (MD) causes central visual field loss. When field defects occur in both eyes and overlap, parts of the visual pathways are no longer stimulated. Previous reports have shown that this affects the grey matter of the primary visual cortex, but possible effects on the preceding visual pathway structures have not been fully established. Methods In this multicentre study, we used high-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate the visual pathway structures up to the primary visual cortex of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and juvenile macular degeneration (JMD). Results Compared to age-matched healthy controls, in patients with JMD we found volumetric reductions in the optic nerves, the chiasm, the lateral geniculate bodies, the optic radiations and the visual cortex. In patients with AMD we found volumetric reductions in the lateral geniculate bodies, the optic radiations and the visual cortex. An unexpected finding was that AMD, but not JMD, was associated with a reduction in frontal white matter volume. Conclusion MD is associated with degeneration of structures along the visual pathways. A reduction in frontal white matter volume only present in the AMD patients may constitute a neural correlate of previously reported association between AMD and mild cognitive impairment.
Purpose.: To establish whether primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with a change in volume of the visual pathway structures between the eyes and the visual cortex. Methods.: To answer this question, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in combination with automated segmentation and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Eight patients with POAG and 12 age-matched control subjects participated in the study. Only POAG patients with bilateral glaucomatous visual field loss were admitted to the study. The scotoma in both eyes had to include the paracentral region and had to, at least partially, overlap. All participants underwent high-resolution, T1-weighted, 3-T MRI scanning[b]. Subsequently, VBM was used to determine the volume of the optic nerves, the optic chiasm, the optic tracts, the lateral geniculate nuclei (LGN), and the optic radiations. Analysis of covariance was used to compare these volumes in the POAG and control groups. The main outcome parameter of the measurement was the volume of visual pathway structures. Results.: Compared with the controls, subjects with glaucoma showed reduced volume (P < 0.005) of all structures along the visual pathway, including the optic nerves, the optic chiasm, the optic tracts, the LGN, and the optic radiations. Conclusions.: POAG adversely affects structures along the full visual pathway, from the optic nerve to the optic radiation. Moreover, MRI in combination with automated morphometry can be used to aid the detection and assessment of glaucomatous damage in the brain.
Retinal lesions caused by eye diseases such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration can, over time, eliminate stimulation of parts of the visual cortex. This could lead to degeneration of inactive cortical neuronal tissue, but this has not been established in humans. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess the effects of prolonged sensory deprivation in human visual cortex. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance images were obtained in subjects with foveal (age-related macular degeneration) and peripheral (glaucoma) retinal lesions as well as age-matched controls. Comparison of grey matter between patient and control groups revealed density reductions in the approximate retinal lesion projection zones in visual cortex. This indicates that long-term cortical deprivation, due to retinal lesions acquired later in life, is associated with retinotopic-specific neuronal degeneration of visual cortex. Such degeneration could interfere with therapeutic strategies such as the future application of artificial retinal implants to overcome lesion-induced visual impairment.
Introduction: The Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) level is suspected to be lower in older ages. In a study of rats, aging can be induced by D-galactose. Various degenerative diseases can also develop from streptozotocin induction (rat models for diabetes mellitus). This study aimed to verify SIRT1 level differences among old rats, D-galactose-induced diabetic rats and streptozotocin- induced aging rats. Material and Methods: A total of 20 female Wistar rats aged four months was divided into five groups of 4 rats each. Group K1 was directly terminated, K2 and K3 were kept until 18 and 33 months old, respectively, and later terminated. Rats in the K4 group were induced with streptozotocin at a dose of 65 mg/kg BW and nicotinamide at 120 mg/ kg BW and kept for one month. Rats in the K5 group were induced by 300 mg/kg BW of D-galactose for one month. Blood specimens were taken to examine SIRT1 levels using ELISA. The statistical test used in this study was the Kruskal-Wallis test (95% confidence level). Results: SIRT1 levels in rats aged 4, 18, and 33 months, diabetic rat models, and D-galactose-induced aging were 0.43 ± 0.12, 0.58 ± 0.15, 0.30 ± 0.01, 0.25 ± 0.13, and 0.21 ± 0.05, respectively (p=0.028). Conclusions: D-galactose- induced aging rat models had the lowest SIRT1 level compared to 33-month-old rats and diabetic rat models.
The prevalence of smoking among adolescents is relatively high and continues to increase. Providing information or knowledge about the dangers of smoking and encouragement to quit smoking is necessary. Discussion and outbound methods are expected to improve knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. This study aimed to identify the improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards smoking following discussion and outbound activities. This was a quasi-experimental study with a total of 30 subjects aged 12-25 years old recruited using the consecutive method. Subjects were requested to complete a pre-test and post-test about their knowledge of smoking as well as an attitude questionnaire after participating in a discussion and outbound (outdoor motivational training). The paired T-test or Wilcoxon test was employed in the statistical analysis (95% confidence level, α = 0.05). A total of 11 adolescents were smokers (36.7%). The knowledge pre-test and post-test scores were 70.83±13.47 and 75.21±16.37 (p=0.063), while those for attitudes were 77.73±11.26 and 78.4±10.35 (p=0.674), respectively. To conclude, there was no improvement in the knowledge or attitudes towards smoking after the knowledge transferred through discussion and outbound.
Latar Belakang: Gagal jantung merupakan problem kesehatan mayor di dunia. Gagal jantung ini angka morbiditas dan mortalitasnya tinggi terutama pada usia lanjut. Penelitian penelitan sebelumnya menyatakan N Terminal pro Brain Natriretic Peptide (NTproBNP) dapat untuk diagnosis, tetapi perannya untuk membedakan tingkat keparahan gagal jantung pada usia lanjut belum sepenuhnya jelas. Tujuan Penelitian : Mengetahui perbedaan kadar N Tterminal pro B Type Natriuretic Peptides (NT pro BNP) berdasarkan derajat keparahan penyakit pada pasien gagal jantung Usia Lanjut. Metode Penelitian : Penelitian ini adalah obervasional analitik dengan desain cross sectional. Subyek yang memenuhi kriteria (terdiagnosis gagal jantung, berusia ≥ 60 tahun) dibagi 2 kelompok berdasarkan derajat keparahan penyakitnya sesuai keriteria New York Heart Association (NYHA) dan dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar NT pro BNP. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji t tidak berpasangan dan dianggap bermakna bila p<0,05. Hasil: Pada penelitian ini melibatkan 24 subyek penelitian, yang terdiri dari kelompok pasien gagal jantung ringan (NYHA kelas I-II) dan kelompok pasien gagal jantung berat (NYHA III-IV). Rerata usia subyek penelitian adalah 64,50±4,65 tahun dengan usia minimum 60 tahun dan maksimum 78 tahun. Kadar NT pro BNP kelompok gagal jantung berat (1.2587,58± 574,85 pg/ml) lebih tinggi dibanding kelompok gagal jantung ringan (867,83 ± 333,27 pg/ml), secara statistik bermakna dengan p=0,040. Kesimpulan : Kadar NT pro BNP pada pasien usia lanjut dengan gagal jantung berat (NYHA III-IV) lebih tinggi secara bermakna daripada pada pasien gagal jantung ringan (NYHA I-II).
Malaria in Manokwari remains a major public health problem. The major means of effective disease management is a quick and accurate diagnosis, it is one of the main interventions of the Global Malaria Control Strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of RDTs in malaria compared with the molecular Technique (PCR) in diagnosis malaria in Manokwari. This research is a cross-sectional study in Amban a Wosi Primary health center in Manokwari, West Papua. A total of 92 blood samples from patients in Amban a Wosi Primary health center in Manokwari had obtained from West Papua, during Agustus 2019. Peripheral venous blood samples were taken from the medial cubiti vein for every sample from Amban and Wosi Primary health center in Manokwari. The RDT examination and PCR were done in the Laboratory of Parasitology and Litbang Banjarnegara, Indonesia. Malaria cases by sex shown the same proportion of 46 (50%) between females and males. The age of the study subjects was dominated by the 16-45 age group, middle education level, and works as a housewife. The subject known to be infected with Plasmodium was a college student and in the range age of 15-45 years. Out of 92 samples, both microscopic, RDT and PCR confirm malaria for one same case. Microscopic and RDT examination showed that patient was infected by P. falciparum, but, PCR just can detect the genus of Plasmodium. Among all methods, have the same sensitivity to detect Plasmodium. This study has compared different diagnostic methods of screening malaria in Manokwari. The Molecular and Rapid Test analyses were the same prevalence to detect infection of Plasmodium
Aromatherapy candle is a safe, effective, and cost-effective repellent. It has a potential repellent effect particularly on mosquitoes. Lemongrass is a potential plant as a natural repellent for Aedes aegypti. The purpose of this study was to determine the repellency effect of lemongrass essential oils against Ae. aegypti. This study was an experimental study with a post-test only with control group design, which was divided into six groups (one negative control and five treatment groups 9%, 10%, 11%, 12%, and 13%) with four repeats. Each group consisted of 20 Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes, so the total number of mosquitoes used was 480. Tested mosquitos were exposed to aromatherapy candles for one hour, and their repellency observed every 15-minute intervals. The average of repellency effect of the negative control and 5 treatment groups at minute 60 were 7.5%; 0%; 33.33%; 66.67%; 66.67%; and 100% respectively. We conclude that the aromatherapy candle of lemongrass essential oil was effective as a 100% repellency effect against Ae. aegypti at a concentration of 13%.
Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of filariasis in Amban, the endemic area of filariasis, was carried out since 2016. The treatment target of the filariasis area is the area with the microfilaria rate (Mf rate ≥ 1%). The purposes of this study were to detect Wuchereria bancrofti antigens after 3 years of mass treatment and to find out the environmental characteristic and preventive behavior from mosquito bites in Amban the endemic filariasis village Manokwari, West Papua. This observational analytic study was conducted in Amban by examining the subject with the AlereTM Filariasis Strip Test (FTS) and questionnaires collection on 56 research subjects. Respondents were taken capillary blood and followed by tracking environmental and behavioral data of questionnaires. The data obtained was performed by bivariate analysis. The result showed that 56 respondents were negative for W. bancrofti filarial antigen (Mf rate 0%). Research subjects were dominated by the age range of adults, moderate education, and unemployment. The subjects living environment 58.9% far from the garden and 57.1% far from standing water. Preventive behavior from mosquito bites showed that 44.1% use wire ventilation; 44.6% use repellent; 19.6% do not do an outdoor activity at the night; 39.3% use mosquito nets; 28.6% do not do habits of hanging clothes. The level of education was related to the behavior to use repellent (p = 0.025).